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Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences

Case Category Index

Case Index: Retina & Vitreous

Acquired Ocular Toxoplasmosis: 42-year-old female with "fuzzy" vision for two weeks

Acquired Peripheral Retinoschisis: 83-year-old male was referred to our retina clinic for a retinal detachment which was described as close to the macula in his right eye. He was asymptomatic on presentation.

Acute Macular Neuroretinopathy: 30-year-old woman presented for evaluation of vision loss in both eyes (OU) in the setting of a newly diagnosed transverse venous sinus thrombosis.

Acute Retinal Necrosis: 84-year-old man with Alzheimer’s dementia presented with floaters and decreased vision in both eyes (OU).

Acute Syphilitic Posterior Placoid Chorioretinitis: 68-year-old man presented to the emergency department at the University of Iowa with two weeks of progressive vision loss in the left eye.

Acute Zonal Occult Outer Retinopathy (AZOOR) and Acute Idiopathic Blind Spot Enlargement Syndrome (AIBSE): 34-year-old female awoke with painless loss of vision left eye 3 weeks prior to presentation.

Age-related Macular Degeneration: Progression from Atrophic to Proliferative: 76-year-old female with 17-year history of atrophic AMD and increased size of existing central scotoma discovered with home Amsler grid testing

B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia with associated choroidal infiltrate and serous macular detachment: 12-year-old female with history of newly diagnosed B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia who presented with new onset blurry vision with a central scotoma in the left eye for the past two days.

Birdshot Choroiditis: 55-year-old female with persistent vitreous floaters

Behcet's Disease: A 32-year-old female with recurrent ocular inflammation

Cat-Scratch neuroretinitis (Ocular bartonellosis): 44-year-old female with non-specific "blurriness" of vision, left eye.

Cataract Formation after Pars Plana Vitrectomy. Patient referred from the retina service for dense cataract formation three days following pars plana vitrectomy. Due to the rapid onset and severity of the cataract, there was concern for an iatrogenic break in the posterior capsule during vitrectomy. (includes video)

Central Retinal Artery Occlusion (CRAO): 81-year-old white male with sudden, painless vision loss left eye.

Changing Trends in Sympathetic Ophthalmia: Sympathetic ophthalmia following repeated vitreoretinal surgery with no history of trauma

Charles Bonnet Syndrome: “I see people outside my home.”

Commotio Retinae: 29-year-old man was referred after sustaining a head injury during an altercation.

Choroidal Hemangioma: Central scotoma in the right eye. Patient with reduced vision and oval-shaped central scotoma in the central visual field of the right eye for two months.

Choroidal Malignant Melanoma: 58-year-old female with pigmented retinal lesion and exudative retinal detachment

Choroidal Osteoma: 10-year-old girl presents for annual follow-up. She reports that she recently failed a school screening

Chorioretinitis Sclopetaria: A Systems Based Approach to Eye Injury Prevention. Patient with BB gun injury to right orbit

Coats Disease: 19-year-old male presented to his local optometrist with a 4-week history of floaters and a shadow in the superotemporal visual field of his left eye

Congenital Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus (LCMV) infection: 1-week-old male with hydrocephalus and bilateral chorioretinitis

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Retinitis: 36-year-old Indian male with HIV and decreasing visual acuity

Diagnosis and Management of Combined Hamartoma of the Retina and Retinal Pigment Epithelium (CHRRPE) in Pediatric Patients: A three-part case series of pediatric patients with CHRRPE and discussion of the association with neurofibromatosis type 2

Electrocution Induced Cataracts and Macular Hole: Patient was cutting down trees at work when an electrical wire was accidentally cut leading to electrocution. He sustained diffuse burns that affected 15% total body surface area including the face, scalp, left upper extremity, left lateral trunk, and left lower trunk.

Endogenous Endophthalmitis: 33-year-old male presented to an outside hospital for suicidal ideation. He had felt unwell for several days, had decreased vision and pain in his left eye, and attributed his suicidality to pain.

Full-thickness Macular Hole (FTMH):68-year-old female with a history of non-exudative macular degeneration referred for vision changes.

Familial Exudative Vitreoretinopathy (FEVR): 48-day-old boy was referred for evaluation of bilateral retinal detachments.

Hydroxychloroquine (Plaquenil) Toxicity: 57-year-old female with bilateral central photopsias for two years. Currently treated with prednisone and methotrexate for Sjogren syndrome and inflammatory arthritis and was previously treated with hydroxychloroquine for 10 years, stopped one year ago.

Interferon Retinopathy: 60-year-old male with hepatitis C virus infection presents with new floaters in both eyes. Treated with peginterferon and ribavirin for 6 weeks prior to visit.

Idiopathic Juxtafoveal Telangiectasia Type II (Macular Telangiectasia type 2): 43-year-old male with decreased vision and a central scotoma OU for the past 10 years, which has been getting progressively worse

Malattia Leventinese (Familial Dominant Drusen): 30-year-old female with drusen

Multilayered hemorrhage in Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML): 35-year-old female presented with severe, acute bilateral vision loss one day after admission to the hospital for weakness.

Multiple Evanescent White Dot Syndrome (MEWDS): 24-year-old female with one week duration of central scotoma, right eye

Ocular Ischemic Syndrome: 7-year-old female presented to clinic with decreased visual acuity in her left eye.

Ocular Ischemic Syndrome in a patient with background Diabetic Retinopathy: Distinguishing Features: 70-year-old male presented with blurred vision in the right eye for several weeks.

Optic Nerve Drusen: 19-year-old female with blurred vision

Pathologic Myopia: 69-year-old woman presented for evaluation of decreased vision and "wavy lines" in the right eye for approximately one week.

Pattern Dystrophy Associated with Myotonic Dystrophy: 56-year-old female presented with a one-year history of increasingly distorted vision OS described as "crinkled"

Pigmented Paravenous Retinochoroidal Atrophy: 58-year-old African American woman with an ocular history of mild primary open angle glaucoma and age-related cataracts in both eyes who presents for the evaluation of a newly-noted retinal scar in her right eye."

Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy (PCV): 57-year-old Caucasian male referred for retinal thickening and subretinal fluid in right eye greater than left eye. The patient noted a stable gray spot and visual distortion OD for the previous several weeks. He had stable chronic floaters but no flashes of light, eye pain, or other ocular symptoms.

Progression of Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy During Pregnancy. A woman with type 1 diabetes was evaluated, one week after an otherwise uncomplicated cesarian section, for decreased vision and multiple new floaters in both eyes. Onset of dramatically decreased vision in both eyes began at the time of child delivery.

Presumed Ocular Histoplasmosis (POHS): 30-year-old male with blurred central vision

Primary Vitreoretinal Lymphoma (PVRL): 68-year-old man with six months of persistently blurry vision in the left eye

Purtscher's Retinopathy: 22-year-old male with vision loss after trauma

Punctate Inner Choroidopathy with Choroidal Neovascular Membrane

Recurrent Neuroretinitis: 29-year-old white female with progressively worsened vision, right eye, diminished central vision, and pain with eye movements.

Retinal Artery Macroaneurysm (RAMA): Sudden painless decreased vision in the right eye.

Retinochoroidal coloboma: 54-year-old female with blurred vision

Serpiginous Choroiditis: 60-year-old male with 15 year history of serpiginous choroiditis reports a 2 day history of a new scotoma noticed on Amsler Grid testing of his right eye.

Sickle Cell Retinopathy: 18-year-old African-American male with known sickle cell disease is referred to the vitreoretinal service for evaluation of two days of blurry vision and new-onset floaters in the left eye that developed while playing basketball.

Stickler Syndrome: 10-year-old male with family history of retinal detachment and optically empty vitreous.

Unilateral Retinitis Pigmentosa: Visual field changes in a 31-year-old female

Valsalva Retinopathy: Vision loss after asthma attack: 32-year-old female patient presented with a "black spot" in the vision of her left eye.

Vascular Tufts of the Pupillary Margin: 68-year-old female presented to the retina clinic with a history of recurrent hyphema in both eyes (OU).  She had multiple instances of spontaneous, non-traumatic hyphema for which she had eventually sought medical attention.

Vitamin A Deficiency and Nyctalopia: 55-year-old male with gradual onset of night blindness

Vitreous Syneresis: An Impending Posterior Vitreous Detachment (PVD): 60 year-old female with newly reported flashing lights and "large and stringy" floaters in the left eye.

Waldenstrom Macroglobulinema-Associated Retinopathy: A 61 year-old male presenting with worsening vision in both eyes over the past 2 years, poorly controlled diabetes, persistent DME, and proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

Case Category Index